Constituent assembly of india Notes PDF- Hello Aspirants, welcome to our site sarkarirojgarhelp.com Today, we are providing you Indian Polity Constituent Assembly Notes PDF which help you to learn all facts about the constituent assembly.
Constituent assembly of india:- Background:
- It was in 1934 that the idea to create a Constitution for India without any interference from other countries. (Especially from Britain).
- M.N. Roy first coined this Idea, and then in 1935 Indian National Congress (INC) officially demanded their need for a Constitution, for the first time.
- Consequently, in 1938, Jawaharlal Nehru announced on behalf of the INC, that Indian Constitution would be framed without any outside interference.
- Constituent assembly members elected by Adult Franchise would handle this.
- The British accepted the demand in 1940 and is known as ‘August Offer’.
- Following that, in 1942 Sir Stafford Cripps came to India with a draft proposal
- by the British Government on the framing of Indian Constitution after World War II.
- It was denied by the Muslim League, who wanted to divide India into two autonomous parts.
Formation of Constituent Assembly:
- The Constituent Assembly was constituted in November 1946 under the scheme formulated by the Cabinet Mission Plan.
- According to the Scheme, the Constituent Assembly had 389 seats.
- 296 seats were to be allotted to British India and 93 seats to the Princely States.
- Out of these 296 seats to British India, 292 members were to be drawn from 11 Governors Province’s and four from 4 Chief Commissioners Province’s.
- Seats allocated to the British Provinces and the Princely States are based
- on the Proportion to their respective Population. (1 seat for Million Population).
- Along with this, seats should be decided among the three principal communities like Muslim, Sikhs and General Communities (Other than the First two communities).
- The members of that community should elect the representatives of each community by the method of Proportional representation through a single transferable vote.
- But in the Princely States, the representatives were nominated by the head of the Princely States.
- This meant that the Constituent Assembly was a mixture of partly elected and partly nominated body.
Elections to the Constituent Assembly:
The Elections for the Constituent Assembly held in July – August 1946.
- As an election result, the Indian National Congress won 208 seats, and the Muslim League won 73 seats, and the remaining 15 seats won by other small independent groups.
- The Princely States decided to stay away from the Constituent Assembly as they failed to show their majority.
- The elected Constituent Assembly comprised representatives of all sections of Indian Society that are Hindu, Muslims, Sikhs, Parsis, Anglo- Indians, Indian Christians, SCs and STs and also including Women of all these sections.
- The Constituent Assembly include with all important personalities except Mahatma Gandhi and MA Jinnah.
Working of Constituent Assembly:
- The Constituent Assembly held its first meeting on 9th December 1946.
- Only 211 members attended the Meeting.
- The entire Muslim league boycotted the meeting, instead demanding a separate state of Pakistan.
- On first meeting to following the French Practice, Dr. Sachchidananda Sinha, the Oldest member, was elected as the Interim (Temporary) President of the Assembly.
- Later, on 11th December 1946, Dr. Rajendra Prasad and HC Mukherjee were elected as the President and Vice- President of the Constituent Assembly respectively.
- B.N Rau was appointed as the Constitutional Advisor to the Assembly.
Historic Move by Jawaharlal Nehru:
- On 13th December, 1946, Jawaharlal Nehru moved the historic ‘Objective Resolution’ in the Constituent Assembly.
- It laid down the fundamentals and Philosophy of the Constitutional Structure.
- It primarily speaks about India as the Independent Sovereign Republic,
- the transformation of the territories of British India into the Indian States, Judicial, Political and equal opportunities to the citizens were the key points.
- The Assembly unanimously adopted the Resolution on January 22, 1947.
Working for the Constitution:
- The Constituent Assembly appointed several committees to deal with the different task of the Constitution making.
- Out of these 8 were major committees and other were minor committees.
- Among all the Committees, the most important committee was the Drafting Committee in which Dr. B.R Ambedkar played a role as Chairman setup on August 29, 1947.
The Constituent Assembly Committee Members were:
- Dr. B. R. Ambedkar – Chairman
- N Gopalaswami Ayengar
- Alladi Krishnaswamy Iyer
- K M Munshi
- MD. Saadullah
- N Madhava Rau (He replaced B. L. Mitter)
- TT Krishnamachari (Who replaced DP Khaitan who died in 1948)
- The Constituent Assembly of India appointed 8 Major committees and 13 minor committees to deal with different tasks of constitution- making.
|Name of Committee||Head of Committee|
|1||Drafting Committee||Dr. B.R. Ambedkar|
|2||Union Powers Committee||Jawaharlal Nehru|
|3||Union Constitution Committee||Jawaharlal Nehru|
|4||Provincial Constitution Committee||Sardar Patel|
|5||Advisory Committee on Fundamental Rights,|
Minorities and Tribal and Excluded Areas
|6||Rules of Procedure Committee||Dr. Rajendra Prasad|
|7||States Committee (Committee for Negotiating with States)||Jawaharlal Nehru|
|8||Steering Committee||Dr. Rajendra Prasad|
Subcommittees under Advisory Committee on Fundamental Rights, Minorities and Tribal and Excluded Areas:
|Name of Committee||Head of Committee|
|Fundamental Rights Sub-Committee||J.B. Kripalani|
|Minorities Sub-Committee||Harendra Coomar Mookerjee|
|North-East Frontier Tribal Areas and Assam Excluded & Partially Excluded Areas Sub-Committee||Gopinath Bardoloi|
|Excluded and Partially Excluded Areas (Other than those in Assam) Sub-Committee||A V Thakkar|
The Sources of the Constitution:
- The Structural part of the constitution of India was mostly derived from the Government of India Act 1935.
- The Fundamental and the Directive Principles parts were borrowed from the American and Irish Constitution respectively.
- The Principles of Cabinet Government and the relations between the executive and the legislature have been derived from the British Constitution.
- The other provisions of the Constitution were from:
- USSR (Now Russia)
- South Africa
- Hence Our Indian Constitution is called as ‘Borrowed Constitution’ or ‘Patched Constitution’.
- However, the committees made necessary modifications in the borrowed features to adapt to Indian conditions.
Indian Constitution – Completion:
- In all, the Constituent Assembly had 11 sessions over two years, 11 months and 18 days to complete the Indian Constitution.
- In this time, the Constitution makers had gone through the Constitutions of about 60 nations.
- The total expenditure incurred during the making of Indian Constitution is Rs. 64 Lakh.
- Finally, The Indian Constitution was adopted on Nov 26th, 1949.
- The Constitution of India came into effect on 26 January 1950, proclaiming India to be a sovereign, democratic republic.
- Review: Important Timeline Events
|9 December 1946||The first meeting of the Constituent Assembly was held in the constitution hall (now the Central Hall of Parliament House).Demanding a separate state, the Muslim League boycotted the meeting.Sachchidananda Sinha was elected temporary president of the assembly, in accordance with French practice.|
|11 December 1946||Rajendra Prasad was elected as presidentH. C. Mukherjee was elected as vice-president of the constituent assembly.B. N. Rau was appointed as its constitutional adviser.|
|13 December 1946||An ‘Objective Resolution’ was moved by Jawaharlal Nehru in the assembly, laying down the underlying principles of the constitution. It finally became the Preamble of the constitution.|
|22 January 1947||Objective resolution unanimously adopted.|
|22 July 1947||National flag adopted.|
|15 August 1947||Indian independence achieved as the Dominion of India.|
|29 August 1947||9. Drafting Committee appointed with Dr. B. R. Ambedkar as the Chairman.|
|16 July 1948||10. Along with Harendra Coomar Mookerjee V. T. Krishnamachari was also elected as second vice-president of Constituent Assembly.|
|26 November 1949||Constitution passed and accepted by the assembly.|
|24 January 1950||“Jana Gana Mana” adopted as the national anthem, with the first two verses of “Vande Mataram” the national song. Rajendra Prasad elected the first president of India.|
Facts to Remember: “Constituent assembly of india”
- Elephant was adopted as the symbol (seal) of the Constituent Assembly.
- H.V.R Iyengar was the secretary to the constituent assembly.
- S.N. Mukherjee was the chief draftsman of the constitution of constituent assembly.
- Prem Behari Narain Raizada was the calligrapher of the Indian Constitution.
- The Indian Constitution was handwritten by him in a flowing italic style.
- The original version was beautified and decorated by artists from Shantiniketan including Nand Lal Bose and Beohar Rammanohar Sinha.
- The calligraphy of Hindi version was done by Vasant Krishna Vaidya and elegantly decorated and illuminated by Nand Lal Bose.
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