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- Full form of DNA is Deoxyribonucleic Acid.
- Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) is a POLYMER OF NUCLEOTIDES (a molecule composed of two chains made of nucleotides) which coil around each other to form a double helix structure.
- This double helix structure of DNA carries the genetic information used in the growth, development, functioning, and reproduction of all known living organisms and many viruses.
- It is found in cell organelles like Chloroplast, Mitochondria, Nucleus.
- Each nucleotide contains a phosphate group, a sugar called deoxyribose, and a nitrogen base.
- Each nucleotide consists of one of four nitrogen-containing nucleobases
- Purine (guanine [G], adenine [A]), and Pyrimidine (cytosine [C], or thymine [T]), a sugar called deoxyribose, and a phosphate group.
- Adenine forms a double bond with Thymine.
- Cytosine forms a triple bond with Guanine.
- James Watson and Francis Crick discovered the DNA Structure in 1953.
- DNA has a double helix Hydrogen strand structure.
- The nitrogenous bases in DNA of the two separate polynucleotide strands are bound together, according to base-pairing rules (A with T by double bond and C with G by the triple bond), with hydrogen bonds to make double-stranded DNA.
- 1 unit of DNA can have a maximum number of 11 nitrogenous bases, but we cannot determine the length of DNA.
- The distance between base pairs of DNA is 3.4 Angstroms.
- The total Diameter of DNA is 20 Angstroms.
- The distance from midpoint to tilt point of DNA is 10 Angstrom.
- The distance of 2 tilt of DNA is 34 Angstrom.
- The width of a single DNA thread is 2.8 Angstrom.
- DNA stores biological information.
- Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) is a nucleic acid found in cell organelles that contains the genetic information for the growth, development, and function of living organisms. All known cellular organisms and some viruses contain DNA.
- It is a biological macromolecule that carries hereditary instructions in many organisms.
- DNA is necessary for the production of proteins, metabolism, regulation, and reproduction of the cell.
- Full form of RNA is Ribonucleic Acid.
- Ribonucleic acid (RNA) is also a nucleic acid polymeric molecule that essential in many biological roles in coding, decoding, regulation, and expression of genes.
- Ribonucleic acid (RNA) is usually single-stranded, unlike DNA.
- A nucleotide in an RNA chain will contain ribose (the five-carbon sugar), one of the four nitrogenous bases (Adenine, Uracil, Guanine, or Cytosine), and a phosphate group.
- Purine (guanine [G], adenine [A])), and Pyrimidine (Uracil and cytosine).
Type of RNAs: t RNA – Transfer RNA:
- It is 15 – 20% of total RNA.
- It is stable in nature and serves as the physical link between the mRNA and the amino acid sequences of proteins.
m – RNA – Messenger RNA:
- It is 5-10% of total RNA. It is formed from DNA and lives for a short period.
- A large family of RNA is mRNA molecules that convey genetic information from DNA to the ribosome.
- specify the sequence of amino acid of the protein products of gene expression.
The function of RNA:
- RNA does not carry any genetic material.
- DNA makes RNA, and RNA in return makes Protein.
- It starts the synthesis of peptide bonds by translating RNA information into protein information.
Image of DNA and RNA structure:
In short, we will say that this topic is very interesting because in this topic we learn about DNA and RNA, the Full Form of DNA and RNA, and also the definition, structure, differences, and function of DNA and RNA in our body. Therefore, we will be providing you short notes PDF for DNA & RNA by which you can easily understand this topic.
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