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PARLIAMENT of India
Part V of the Constitution of India deals with the parliament. The provisions of the parliament are written in the article 79 – 122.
The Important points in the articles are given-below (Article 79-83):
- According to Article 79, the parliament consists of the President, the Council of States (Rajya Sabha), and the Council of People (Lok Sabha).
- In 1954, the Hindi names Lok Sabha and Rajya Sabha were adopted for the council of people and the council of states respectively.
- The President of India is not a member of either house of the Parliament. But he is an integral part of the Indian Parliament.
- He has the power to summons the two houses of parliament and dissolves the house of people.
- His assent is also required before any legislation can take effect.
- According to this article, Rajya Sabha is composed of not more than 250 members.
- Among the 250 members 238 are to be the representatives of States and Union Territories and the left 12 members are to be nominated by the President.
- The nominated persons are required to have special knowledge or practical experience in respect of literature, art, social services and science.
- According to this article, the maximum strength of Lok Sabha can be 552.
- Among those 552 members, 530 are to be elected members from states, 20 members from Union territories, and 2 members of Anglo – Indian Community-nominated by the President (Article 331).
- Anglo – Indians are those people who are domiciled within the Indian territory and his/her father or any of his other male progenitors in the male line are of European descent.
- After completion of each census, the allocation of seats in the Lok-Sabha to different states and UTs, and the demarcation of each state into territorial constituency shall be adjusted by the parliament.
- The Delimitation Commission Acts in 1952, 1962, 1972 and 2002 were enacted by the parliament for this purpose.
- Some amendment acts related to the Delimitation:
- 42nd Amendment Act, 1976: The allocation of seats in the Lok Sabha to the States and division of each State into territorial constituencies was till the year 2000 at the 1971 level.
- 84th amendment Act, 2001: The above ban on readjustment was extended until the year 2026.
- 87th Amendment Act, 2003: This provides for the delimitation of constituencies based on the 2001 census instead of the 1991 census.
- Reservation of seats for the SCs and STs in the Lok Sabha based on population ratios.
- The reservation was for only 10 years initially, but it was extended till January 25, 2020, by 95th Amendment Act, 2009.
- Recently it is extended again till 2030 by 104th Constitution Amendment.
- Duration of Lok Sabha:
- The normal term of Lok Sabha is 5 years from the date appointed for its first meeting.
- President can dissolve it earlier before the ending of its term.
- At the time of emergency under article 352 the 5-year term of the Lok Sabha can be extended up to one year at a time. But this extension cannot continue beyond a period of six months after the emergency has cease to operate.
- Duration of Rajya Sabha:
- This house cannot be dissolved.
- One third of its members retire in every second year.
- The retiring members are eligible for renomination and reelection any number of times.
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