The respiratory system function and parts PDF- Hello Aspirants, welcome to our site sarkarirojgarhelp.com Today, we are providing you human respiratory system function Short notes PDF which help you to understand this topic for competitive exams.
Anatomy of the Respiratory System and Function
- The human respiratory system comprised of a pair of nostrils openings out above the upper lips.
- The nasal passage starts from the nostrils ends in the nasal chamber.
- This passage opens into the pharynx. It is the common passage for food and air and connected with the mouth and nose.
- This pharynx connected with trachea via Larynx.
- Larynx or soundbox, consist of two vocal cords, is a cartilaginous box that is responsible for the sound production.
- During the time of swallowing glottis is covered by the epiglottis, a thin elastic cartilaginous flap and it prevents the entry of food particles into the larynx.
- Trachea, a straight tube-like structure extending up to the middle of the thoracic cavity.
- This trachea then divides at the level of 5th thoracic vertebra into a right and left primary bronchi.
- Each bronchus then farther divided into repeated divisions to form the secondary and tertiary.
- Those tertiary bronchi then finally ending up in very thin terminal bronchioles.
- Many incomplete cartilaginous rings are present in the passage between the trachea and the initial bronchioles to support the structure.
- Alveoli, a very thin, irregular-walled, and vascularized sac-like structures are present at the end of each terminal bronchioles.
- The branching network of bronchi, bronchioles, and alveoli is comprising of the lungs.
- Humans have two lungs, the left, and the right lung.
- Both are covered by a double-layered membrane, called Pleura.
- Between the double layer membranes, a jelly-like fluid is also present to lower the friction on the lung-surface.
- There are two main part in the human respiratory system;
- The conducting part: From the external nostrils up to the terminal bronchioles. It transports the atmospheric air to the alveoli, removes the foreign particles, humidifies the air, and brings the air to body temperature.
- The exchange part: The alveoli and their ducts. In this part O2 and CO2 actual diffused between blood and atmospheric air take place.
- The lungs are situated in the air-tight chamber known as the thoracic chamber.
- The vertebral column is present in the back or dorsal position of the thoracic chamber and the sternum is present on the front side, the ribs formed the lateral walls and on the lower side, it is guarded by the dome-shaped diaphragm, a muscular membrane.
Respiration involves the following steps:
- Pulmonary ventilation or Breathing by which atmospheric air is drawn in and CO2 rich alveolar air is released out.
- Across alveolar membrane diffusion of gases (O2 and CO2).
- Transport of gases by the blood.
- O2 and CO2 diffused between blood and tissues.
- Utilization of O2 by the cells for catabolic reactions like cellular respiration and release of CO2 as a waste product.
Some Important points:
- The transport of oxygen by blood takes place with the help of Erythrocytes blood cells
- On the average, percentage of the human body has the element of oxygen is 65%
- The lungs are covered by a membrane is called Pleura.
- Just born baby has the respiratory rate as 32 times per minute.
- In men, the vocal cords are about 20mm long.
- In women, vocal cords are 5mm shorter than vocal cords in men.
- In humans, the sound is produced by the Larynx.
In short, we will say that this topic is very interesting because in this topic we learn about the respiratory system function and structure in our body. Therefore, we will be providing you human respiratory system notes PDF by that you can easily understand this topic.
Interested Candidates can download Biology Respiratory System Notes PDF from the below available link.
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